PMCID: PMC5980091 PMID: 29581476 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Publication Types: Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. Wheat – a classical example of evolution through allopolyploidy Schultz (1913) assembled the first natural classification of wheat by dividing the genus Triticum into three major taxo-nomic groups: einkorn, emmer, and dinkel. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops because it provides about 20% of the total calories for humans. Trace the evolution of hexaploid wheat - 31582081 Explanation: It is widely believed that hexaploid wheat originated via hybridization of hulled tetraploid emmer with Aegilops tauschii (genomes DD) and that the nascent hexaploid was spelt, from which free-threshing wheat evolved by mutations. Taking advantage of the new sequence surveys of the wheat genome recently released by the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium, we identified and characterized MET1 genes in the hexaploid wheat Triticum … These have three sets of paired chromosomes, three times as many as in diploid wheat. It is widely believed that hexaploid wheat originated via hybridization of hulled tetraploid emmer with Aegilops tauschii (genomes DD) and that the nascent hexaploid was spelt, from which free-threshing wheat evolved by mutations. 5 hexaploid wheat being a major type of wheat in the next agricultural history, which accounting 6 for about 95% of world wheat production whereas the tetraploid durum wheat (T. durum) only 7 accounting for the other 5% (Dubcovsky and Dvorak, 2007). Wheat seeds were sown in 30 plastic pots (20 seeds per pot) containing thoroughly washed sand, and then 15 pots were immediately exposed to alkali stress treatment. During this evolutionary process, rapid alterations and sporadic changes in wheat genome took place, due to hybridization, polyploidization, domestication, and mutation. A wealth of data on the genomic structure of cultivated wheats has accumulated after almost a century of research, beginning with the pioneering genetic experiments of NilssonEhle (1909) and the cytological studies of Sakamura (1918) and Sax (1918). The results showed ten pairs of paralogs among 34 TaIAA family members. Key words adaptive evolution, Aegilops tauschii, introgression, synthetic hexaploid wheat, wheat breeding. The modern cultivated wheat has passed a long evolution involving origin of wild emmer (WEM), development of cultivated emmer, formation of spelt wheat and finally establishment of modern bread wheat and durum wheat. tauschii species with tetraploid wheat can be considered as a pleiotropic strategy to speed adaptive evolution of bread wheat in breeding processes by increasing both gene allele types and genetic recombination variations. T. monococcum (2x) was domesticated from the wild progenitor species T. boeoticum in the Fertile Crescent and has never been involved in the evolution of hexaploid bread wheat or tetraploid durum wheat. 2011). Hexaploid wheats evolved in farmers' fields. The study also provided insights into the evolution of CD epitopes and identified a single indel event in the hexaploid wheat D genome that likely resulted in the generation of the highly toxic 33-mer CD epitope. Tests using DNA molec-ular markers show that wild tetraploid wheat did participate in the evolution of hexaploid wheat (Dvorak et al. Investigations of its genome structure led to the discovery of its highly dynamic nature during evolution. Aneuploid genetic studies of isozyme variation in cv Chinese Spring have disclosed that numerous enzymes of hexaploid wheat exist in multiple molecular forms as a direct consequence of polyploidy. Gill, B. Friebe. ). 8. Genetics and evolution of multilocus isozymes in hexaploid wheat. The Most of the 25,000 different forms of modern wheat are varieties of two broad groups, called common wheat and durum wheat. Hexaploid Wheat. from the wheat case, what are the causes for the formidable evolutionary success of allopolyploidy in nature. Bobwhite) was used as test material. The Aux/IAA (IAA) gene family, involved in the auxin signalling pathway, acts as an important regulator in plant growth and development. Common or bread wheat Triticum aestivum accounts for some 95 percent of all the consumed wheat in the world today; the other five percent is made up of durum or hard wheat T. turgidum ssp. Seven of the pairs might have undergone segmental duplication, and the other three … Analysis of the plasmon inheritance based on a chloroplast genome sequence and haplotype sampling of a large plant collection provides an independent view of the origin and evolution of polyploid wheats. genome evolution in the course of the evolutionary history of bread wheat and suggest the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in these processes. Evolution of Hexaploid wheat | Triticum Aestivum | Plant Breeding | How Hexaploid Wheat developed? Hart GE. Results Hexaploid wheat contains nine TaMET1 loci In order to determine the number and complete sequence of TaMET1 genes, we chose a … Cytogenetics, phylogeny and evolution of cultivated wheats B.S. These findings have significant implications in the breeding of high‐yielding wheat varieties resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses using SHW as genetic resources. tauschii, the D genome donor of the common wheat, is a widely distributed (van Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) that combines novel and elite genes from the tetraploid wheat Triticum turgidum L. and wild ancestor Aegilops tauschii Coss., has been used to genetically improve hexaploid common wheat. In hexaploid wheat, a natural mutation is responsible for homologous pairing. T.aestivum is an excellent modern species for studying concerted evolution of sub-genomes in polyploid species, because of its large chromosome size and three well-known genome donors. Therefore, the introgression between tetraploid wild Emmer and hexaploid common wheat played important role in differentiation of other hexaploid forms in the Emmer lineage. Evolution of physiological responses to salt stress in hexaploid wheat Chunwu Yanga, Long Zhaoa, Huakun Zhanga, Zongze Yanga, Huan Wangb, Shanshan Wena,c, Chunyu Zhanga, Sachin Rustgi c,d,e,1, Diter von Wettstein , and Bao Liua,1 aKey Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China; bDepartment of Agronomy, Wheat Gli-2 loci encode complex groups of α-gliadin prolamins that are important for breadmaking, but also major triggers of celiac disease (CD). MeSH terms Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., genome BBAADD) is generally more salt tolerant than its tetraploid wheat progenitor (Triticum turgidum L.). Gene Duplication and Evolution Dynamics in the Homeologous Regions Harboring Multiple Prolamin and Resistance Gene Families in Hexaploid Wheat Naxin Huo 1,2 , Shengli Zhang 3 , Tingting Zhu 2 , Lingli Dong 4 , Yi Wang 1 , Toni Mohr 1 , Tiezhu Hu 3 , Zhiyong Liu 4 , Jan Dvorak 2 , Ming-Cheng Luo 2 , Daowen Wang 4 , Jong-Yeol Lee 5 , Susan Altenbach 1* and Yong Q. Gu 1* Hexaploid wheat is a young polyploid species and represents a good model to study mechanisms of gene evolution after polyploidization. Sixty-nine isozyme structural genes have been identified to date. The common bread wheat (T. aestivum) is a hexaploid species (2 n =6x = 42) having three different sets of genomes (AABBDD) which seem to have been contributed by three different diploid species (Sears, Kihara, Percival etc. Evolution of Bread Wheat: The origin of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has been most extensively investigated. The evolution of hexaploid bread wheat ( Triticum aesti-vum L.) coincided with human civilization through two rounds of interspecific hybridization and whole-genome du-plication (WGD) [8, 9], involving mechanisms of correct pairing between homoeologous chromosomes [10]. Synthetic hexaploid wheat enhances variation and adaptive evolution of bread wheat in breeding processes 1,2 Jun LI 1,2 Hong-Shen WAN 1,2 Wu-Yun YANG * 1 ( Crop Research Institute, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Chengdu 610066, China) 2 ( Key Laboratory of Wheat Biology and Genetic Improvement on Southwestern China, Ministry of Agriculture , Chengdu 610066, China) Recent studies at the scale of the whole genome have suggested rapid genomic changes after polyploidization but so far the rearrangements that have occurred in terms of gene content and organization have not been analyzed at the microlevel in wheat. The evolution of hexaploid wheat involved the hybridiza-tion of 3 ancestral genomes (A, B, and D) (Kimber and Feldman 1987). tauschii. Modern hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a staple food crop that contributes ~ 20% of global daily dietary calories (Reynolds et al. all tetraploid and hexaploid wheats (Dvorak et al. Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. 1993). The first event was the hybridization of Tri-ticum urartu (AA genome donor) and an unknown BB ge-nome donor of the section Sitopsis of Triticum, resulting in According to the history of wheat evolution, only wild einkorn and WEM wheats went through the early domestication selection . However, little is known about the physiological basis of this trait or about the relative contributions of allohexaploidization and subsequent evolutionary genetic changes on the trait development. In this study, we explored the evolutionary trajectory of the IAA family in common wheat. durum, used in pasta and semolina products. Spontaneous mutations have played significant role in the evolution of crop plants. To reassess the role of spelt in the evolution of Triticum aestivum, 4 disomic substitution lines of Ae. T. dicoccoides, wild emmer, Finally, re-synthetizing hexaploid wheat using diverse Ae. The results showed ten pairs of paralogs among 34 TaIAA family members. Either domesticated emmer or durum wheat hybridized with yet another wild diploid grass (Aegilops tauschii) to make the hexaploid wheats, spelt wheat and bread wheat. Polyploidy is important to wheat classification for three reasons: hexaploid wheat in recent years. Spontaneous mutations can be used either as a cultivar or as a parent in the hybridization programme. The seeds of Bobwhite were kindly provided by Dr. Daolin Fu (Shandong Agricultural University, China). Hexaploid wheats developed under domestication. Triticum aestivum (hexaploid wheat or bread wheat) is one of the most important cultivated species in the world and it has been subject of intense research. Establishment of common wheat genome reference sequence … 8 Ae. The abundant genetic diversity in SHW can effectively make breakthroughs in wheat genetic improvement through the inclusion of increased variation. Mentioning: 1 - The Aux/IAA (IAA) gene family, involved in the auxin signalling pathway, acts as an important regulator in plant growth and development. There are also two wild tetraploid wheat species known as T. dicoccoides (AuAuBB) and T. araraticum (AuAuGG). In this study, we explored the evolutionary trajectory of the IAA family in common wheat. Background: Plant and animal methyltransferases are key enzymes involved in DNA methylation at cytosine residues, required for gene expression control and genome stability. Wheat Varieties . 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