2 CHAPTER TWO CELLULAR ADAPTATIONS & INJURY Dr. Khitam, Dr Kifah, Dr Sazan, Objectives: Understand the concepts of cellular growth,adaptations---Hyperplasia, Hypertrophy, Atrophy, Metaplasia List the factors of cell injury and death---O2, Physical, Chemical, Infection, Immunologic, Genetic, Nutritional Describe the pathologic mechanisms at the SUB-cellular level---ATP, Mitochondria, Ca++, … General Pathology: Cellular Adaptations Lorne Holland, M.D. CELLULAR ADAPTATION Lecture 4. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Hypertrophy 3. Cancer Mirza Anwar Baig. CELLULAR Cell injury may be sublethal and result in a variety of types of cell degenerations or accumulations and/or adaptations by the cell to the injury. Answer A AnswerB Answer C AnswerD Answer E Hyperplasia refers to an increase in cell size. (JIPMER) Ex Head Dept. Alteration in cell morphology (structure and appearance) or cell function. Rt: hyperplasia/hypertrophy of Graves d; note epithelial projections into colloid. Cell adaptations are reversible changes in number, size, phenotype, metabolic activity or functions of a cell- not same as cell injury. Cell death, the end result of progressive cell injury, is one of the most crucial events in the evolution of … the cellular adaptations to acute versus chronic hypoxia which play critical roles in the modulation of tumorigenesis. of Pathology. Se você continuar a navegar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. The myocardium adapts to increased workload by hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Lack o… normal vs abnormal adaptation. Chapter 2 • Cell Injury, Adaptation, and Death 17 cell and is composed of nuclear proteins, which are large molecules composed of multiple amino acids. • Define and understand the morphologic patterns of lethal cell injury and the clinical settings in which they occur. The cellular adaptation depicted here is hyper- trophy, the type of reversible injury is ischemia, and the irreversible injury is ischemic coagulative necrosis. Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia, Atrophy and Metaplasia are the main four types of cellular adaptations. • Cellular adaptation is a state that lies intermediate between the normal, unstressed cell and the injured, overstressed cell. Cultural adaptation is the process and time it takes a person to integrate into a new culture and feel comfortable within it. normal: in response to a need abnormal: stimulus doesn't go away. Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology Chapter 3 Cellular Adaptation •Physiologic (normal) vs. pathogenic (diseased states) –Atrophy –Hypertrophy –Hyperplasia –Metaplasia –Dysplasia Cellular Adaptation Atrophy – decrease in cell size Hypertrophy – increase in cell size Hyperplasia – increase in cell numbers (incr. With regard to mechanisms of cellular adaptation, which of the following statements is TRUE? are the structural and functional units of tissues and organs. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. A cell can adapt to a certain point, but if the stimulus continues beyond that point, failure of the cell, and hence the organ, can result. The major known signaling pathways and their functional effects are shown. Study Flashcards On Pathology: Test 1: 2/3. Cellular Adaptation • Cell can adapt themselves by undergoing 5 different conditions 1. First, in order to preserve the viability of the cell, adaptive changes appear. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. If these changes and stimuli are minor or brief, the cell adapts. Cellular adaptation is the ability of cells to respond to various types of stimuli and adverse environmental changes. Adaptations are reversible changes in the size, number, metabolic activity, or functions of cells in response to changes in their environment. Linda A. Dokas, in Methods in Neurosciences, 1994. (JIPMER) MBBS (Cal) MD Path. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Cellular Adaptation, Injury, and Death at Cram.com. Principles of cell injury and cellular adaptation .ppt Mirza Anwar Baig. hypertrophy. ADAPTATION, INJURY, AND DEATH Sesilia Andriani Keban, MSi., Apt. These include changes in food availability and quality, changes in pest and pathogen populations, alteration in immunity and both direct and indirect impacts on animal performance, such as growth, reproduction, and lactation. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. CELLULAR ADAPTATION Atrophy - decrease or shrinkage in cell size - Can (if sufficient numbers) result in shrinkage of entire organ Example: muscular atrophy after cast is removed Example: sports steroid abuse causes atrophy of penis - Physiologic atrophy - normal … •Prokaryotes (ex. Cell Injury, Adaptation and Death Flashcards | Quizlet Title: Cell Injury, Adaptation and Death 1 Cell Injury, Adaptation and Death 2 (No Transcript) 3. CELULAR ADAPTATION Cells. Pathology, Lecture 2, Cell Injury (slides) by aal_qudsi in Types > School Work, pathology, and lecture 2 Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Their technique allows the authors to define the intrinsic spatial and temporal sequence or “hierarchy” of molecular events involved in the dynamic behavior of a cellular superstructure—in this case, the leading edge—in the absence of the confounding compensatory mechanisms underlying cellular adaptation. These adaptations include hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, and metaplasia, and can be physiologic or pathologic, depending upon whether the stimulus is normal or abnormal. Bacteria) •Eukaryotes (ex. Introduction. General pathology lecture 4 cellular adaptation, Principles of cell injury and cellular adaptation .ppt, Adaptation of cellular growth & differentiation, No public clipboards found for this slide. Choose from 500 different sets of pathophysiology cellular adaptation flashcards on Quizlet. They are capable of adjusting their structure and functions in response to various physiological and pathological conditions. Cell Adaptations Are Reversible Changes In Number, Size, Phenotype, PPT. In essence, cells or tissues respond to injury (or stress) in three important ways: (l) adaptation, (2) degeneration or intracellular or … Cell Injury and Adaptation 1 – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 1bf2fb-MzUyO If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Cellular Adaptations 1 Cellular Adaptations •Many unicellular (single celled) organisms have cellular adaptations to help them survive in particular environments. Lft: normal thyroid gland: rings of epithelial cells surrounding colloid. Presentation Summary : CELL ADAPTATION. Hypertrophy In the example of myocardial hypertrophy (lower left), the left ventricular wall is thicker than 2cm (normal, 1–1.5cm). Decrease in cell activity. Glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone and TNF stim proteosome-mediated protein degradation; insulin opposes, Kidney: atrophy via renal artery stenosis. Depending on the specific condition, adaptive reactions can … Cellular adaptation to toxic agents includes three basic types: Increase in cell activity. Climate changes impact the economic viability of livestock production systems worldwide (Klinedinst et al., 1993) through a variety of routes. Biochemical mechanisms of myocardial hypertrophy. CHAPTER 1 Cellular Adaptations, Cell Injury, and Cell Death 5 If the limits of adaptive response to a stimulus are exceeded, or in certain instances when the cell is exposed to an injuri-ous agent or stress, a sequence of events follows that is loosely termed cell injury.Cell injury is reversible up to a • Cellular adaptations can be induced and/or regulated at any of a number of regulatory steps including receptor binding, signal transduction, gene transcription or protein synthesis • The most common morphologically apparent adaptive changes are – Atrophy (decrease in cell size) – Hypertrophy (increase in cell size) – Hyperplasia (increase in cell number) ADAPTATIONADAPTATION The main adaptations to a persistent stimulus may involve cellular hypertrophy, hyperplasia and metaplasia (see diagram # 6). Eventually, the cells suffer irreversible injury and die (Fig. Cell injury, adaptation, and death fix Raniagaye Mansibang. Amoeba, Paramecium, or Euglena) Cilia • Cilia is Latin for "eyelashes." Glucocorticoid hormones produce a spectrum of cellular adaptations in neurons, ranging from alterations in enzyme activity to ultrastructural and morphological changes, that are dependent on protein expression. Hyperplasia 2. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Cellular Adaptation ppt. Dr. Deepak K. Gupta. Middle = normal heart; left = hypertrophied heart due to hypertension; rt = dilated heart due to inability to adapt to continued stress, Squamous thought to be more durable cell type Squamous epithelium don’t  mucus Acid reflux  col to squamous metaplasia (Barrett esophagus) Connective tissue metaplasia = formation of bone, cart, or adipose tissue in tissues that normally don’t contain them, 1. CELULAR. PLAY. • Discriminate cell adaptation, reversible cell injury and irreversible cell injury (cell death) based on etiology, pathogenesis and histological and ultrastructural appearance. in cell … The term lesion defines the totality of the morphological and functional changes that appear in cells, tissues and organs as a response to an aggression (excessive physiological stress and pathological stimuli). DNA has two pur-poses: 1) to duplicate itself during cell division and 2) Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Learn pathophysiology cellular adaptation with free interactive flashcards. Atrophy occurs whenever certain normal stimuli (workload, blood supply, etc) are decreased or lost. 1–2). We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Hypertrophy2. Climate is the most important ecological factor determining the growth, development, and productivity of domestic animals (Adams et al., 1998). The proteins of the nucleus are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). WHAT CAUSES CELLULAR INJURY? 1. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. of Pathology Ex Head Dept. decrease/shrinkage in cell size causes:-decrease in use-decrease in blood suppy-nutrition-endocrine stimulation-denervation. Cellular adaptations, injury … CHAPTER 1 Cellular Responses to Stress and Toxic Insults: Adaptation, Injury, and Death 5 cytoplasmic changes (described later). See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. atrophy. TNF always acts as an inhibitor of hyperplasia. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Cellular injury and adaptation (3): 1. NB: decrease in cortex (most metabolically active cells), Hormonal: Breast at puberty; breast and uterus during pregnancy Compensatory: regeneration of liver after partial hepatectomy NB; hyperplasia regresses if stim removed; difference with cancer. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Metaplasia is irreversible. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! STUDY. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. CELLULAR ADAPTATION Lecture 4 O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. An example of hypertrophy would be (a) liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (b) breast development at puberty (c) the uterus during pregnancy (d) the uterus during menstruation (e) a papillomavirus induced skin wart 2. Cell adaptations Yogesh Ramasamy. • Common in single-cell organisms, like Paramecium an adaptation to stress can progress to cell injury if the stress is not relieved. Special attention will be given to recent discoveries shedding new light on HIF-dependent cellular adaptations, as well as newly HIF-2 identified pathways that intersect HIF signaling and significantly influence tumorigenesis. 4 Cellular Injury is caused by exposure to. … If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Source : https://pharmarkett.files.wordpress.com/2017/02/pcl-301-normal-and-adapted-cell-neoplasia-1.pptx www.facebook.com/notesdental 4. Principles of cell injury and cellular adaptation .ppt, Cellular adaptations, injury and death.. 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