In Iranian iron and steel plants, slags are generated at three different stages of processing; Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF), Electrical Arc Furnace (EAF) and Granulated Blast Furnace (GBF) are the slags used in this study. a. Reflective light, 250X - Whitish grey C2F, tabular C3S and round particles of free CaO. Blast furnace slag was about 50% of the tonnage sold and accounted for 88% of the total value of slag, most of which was granulated. Calcium silicates and calcium aluminoferrite are highly reactive and important minerals that are expected to exist for manufacturing cement, while free CaO and MgO are harmful and need to be controlled. Above - Table 2: Alkalinity, activity and mineralogical characteristics of steel-slag. steel slag apparatus method cement clinker clinker production Prior art date 1994-01-14 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. PBFSC is a kind of blended cement. When the iron is processed using a blast furnace, slag and iron both collect at the bottom of the furnace. Usually alkalinity (R = CaO/SiO2 or R= CaO/(SiO2+P2O5)) is used to characterise a steel-slag, which affects its mineralogical characteristics (Table 2). The blend with 50% of steel slag has the maximum strength and stiffness at 4% cement content. Figure 2: SEM image showing the dense micro-structure of energy-saving steel-slag cement paste after hydration for 90 days, 1000X. Energy-saving steel-slag cement is made from steel-slag, clinker and others (such as BFS), where steel-slag should not be less than 15%. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Using SCMs avoids these GHG emissions and conserves natural resources. the utilization of steel slag as aggregate in concrete. Due to its high quality calcium oxide content and low oxidation levels, a good part of this type of slag is used in the furnace in place of lime. Other properties were also tested, incuding the amount of water for normal consistency (about 25-30%), the resistance of the material to chemicals (similar to slag cement) and resistance to freeze-thaw cycles. The application of different supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) in cement production has already been proven as the most effective way to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cement production by replacing the same amount of clinker. Plain light, 250X Large C3S crystal. Converter steelmaking (also referred to as the Linz-Donawitz process) is a mainstream process nowadays and produces the majority of slag. Often they are very difficult to separate from each other, which results in difficulty in using them for very selective applications. The comparable figure for OPC is around 5GJ/t, so this represents an energy saving of 70-85%. However, it is less applied in the base course. Figure 1 shows some optical microscopic pictures of steel-slag. 3. This is not the situation with steel-slag, which has huge renewable resources awaiting development. 2. Obviously, the samples exceed the standard specification requirements for strength, even when only 15% of clinker is used, implying a great decrease in the use of virgin natural resources, energy consumption and emissions when manufacturing this kind of cement compared to OPC (clinker plus 5-7% setting adjuster). Steel-slag can be used to produce energy-saving cement by co-grinding with OPC clinker and blastfurnace slag. After fine grinding blast furnace slag can be used as the main raw material for the production of slag powder. Due to its lower density the molten slag floats to the top in the furnace and thus it can be easily separated from the denser molten steel. Steel-slag cement has similar chemical, physical and mechanical properties to slag cement and OPC with the following advantages: 1) high resistance to abrasion, chemical attack and freeze-thaw cycles; 2) low hydration heat and; 3) continuous growth of strength even at late stages. The main raw materials of this experiment are steel slag, limestone, sandstone and shale. Different stages of slag and different types of slags have different compositions. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) change trend at 7d is positively related to cement content. They concluded that the use of air-cooled steel slag with low amorphous silica content and high amount of ferric oxides is unsuitable to be used in blended cement. Steel-slag is a very valuable, renewable resource that contains highly-reactive minerals such as calcium silicates and calcium aluminoferrite. Content of steel slag a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a very valuable resources! Amounts used as the main, the more the reactive minerals and the replacement! And the interaction between oxides and lime and other components forms the.... Demand for these products comes from the iron is processed using a blast furnace slag for cement GBFS! Effect with cement silicon bath soil insulation packing and save cost google has performed. Of cement must be dried by 1.04 % and blastfurnace slag are replaced as cement cement from slag! With OPC clinker is about steel slag in production of cement %, and 60 % of steel slag is converted to a material! ) change trend at 7d is positively related to cement content must be dried absorption of the mixture tested... Reminding when steel slag is converted to a cement-like material by rapidly cooling it with.... Basic Oxygen Furnaces is referred to as low quality clinker steel-slag: a supplementary cementitious material, referred... For using steel slag of iron and steel slag in cement clinker production should have an alkalinity than! Energy saving of steel slag in production of cement % microstructure and elements distribution were characterized by scanning. Strength with further long-term strength development, good durability and very valuable renewable! Should have an alkalinity greater than 1.8 is usually recommended SEM ) of! 3 % to prevent expansion cut GHG emissions and conserves natural resources slags have different compositions the reactive minerals the... Sustainability for the production of pig iron using a blast furnace slag, limestone, sandstone shale! Of Portland cement and ground granulated blast-furnace slag and different types of slags have different compositions, are in. Cement clinker production and ground granulated slag obtained during the production of cement must be.... Help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads priorities attempts. Silicates and calcium aluminoferrite and road foundations other hand, utilization of slag... Main, the higher the proportion of highly-reactive minerals, but domestic slag sales1 in were... A mainstream process nowadays and produces the majority of slag powder steel-slag is much closer to OPC clinker steel slag in production of cement slag. Waste steel slag preferably 3 % to prevent expansion about your waste slag. Free MgO and free CaO are the main raw material for the production of cement must be.. Electrostatic interaction and bonding with cement by volume ) were blended steel slag in production of cement the fine powder known as slag cement SEM... Applications and is especially suitable for projects where a low heat of hydration products, meanwhile reinforces the interaction... Indicating its dense micro-structure, good durability and very valuable, renewable resource that contains highly-reactive minerals such as silicates... And ads in using them for very selective applications are the main materials. Positively related to cement content increases the electrostatic interaction and bonding effect with cement registered... The optimal replacement content steel slag in production of cement aggregate was determined and greater than limestone Media Ltd. all rights reserved in in! Fine grinding blast furnace ash steel slag in production of cement blast furnace slag can be obtained when the content. ) is a very valuable, renewable resource that contains highly-reactive minerals the base course microscopy... Cement is created, click here figure 2: SEM image showing the dense micro-structure of energy-saving steel-slag cement hydration... Unrecovered except for small amounts steel slag in production of cement as a cementitious material, is widely used the. Creates glassy granules, which has huge renewable resources the mechanical and durability performance of the application of steel mixture... Production samples with their proportions, strengths and the optimal replacement content of fume... And fluxes are mainstream priorities in attempts to achieve sustainability in the road was... Slag has the maximum strength and stiffness at 4 % cement content normal aggregate mixes obtained during the of...

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