"The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Unscrew it, but don't give up." White male-only primary elections also served to reduce the influence of black men in the political system. [38], African Americans called the amendment the nation's "second birth" and a "greater revolution than that of 1776" according to historian Eric Foner in his book The Second Founding: How the Civil War and Reconstruction Remade the Constitution. The Court declared that the Fifteenth Amendment "commands that the right to vote shall not be denied or abridged on account of race or color, and it gives Congress the power to enforce that command. [13], On June 18, 1866, Congress adopted the Fourteenth Amendment, which guaranteed citizenship and equal protection under the laws regardless of race, and sent it to the states for ratification. To mark the anniversary, the museum’s blog is publishing a series that reexamines the amendment, exploring its origins, its ratification, and its many legacies for the nation. "[22] Congressman John R. Lynch later wrote that ratification of those two amendments made Reconstruction a success.[37]. It prevents the States, or the United States, however, from giving preference, in this particular, to one citizen of the United States over another on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. In the year of its ratification, only eight Northern states allowed blacks to vote. It’s a turn of phrase that works as a shorthand. Section 2. A Tennessee-born Unionist, Johnson believed strongly in state’s rights, and showed great leniency toward white Southerners in his Reconstructionpolicy. Section 1 The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. [24][26] The House of Representatives passed the amendment, with 143 Republicans and one Conservative Republican voting "Yea" and 39 Democrats, three  Republicans, one Independent Republican and one Conservative voting "No"; 26 Republicans, eight Democrats, and one Independent Republican did not vote. As written, the Fifteenth Amendment does not explicitly grant anyone the right to vote. United States Supreme Court decisions in the late nineteenth century interpreted the amendment narrowly. [61] In the last of the Texas primary cases, Terry v. Adams (1953),[62] the Court ruled that black plaintiffs were entitled to damages from a group that organized whites-only pre-primary elections with the assistance of Democratic party officials. [49], In the 20th century, the Court began to read the Fifteenth Amendment more broadly. The term suffrage, or franchise, means the right to vote. It was ratified on February 3, 1870, as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments. Sections 4 and 5 of the Voting Rights Act required states and local governments with histories of racial discrimination in voting to submit all changes to their voting laws or practices to the federal government for approval before they could take effect, a process called "preclearance". Nineteenth Amendment Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. However, part of politics is having a certain genius for repackaging your ideas when the moment hits, which is exactly what Warren is doing here. It was ratified on February 3, 1870,[1] as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments. These amendments removed important barriers to suffrage, but they stopped short of affirming that all Americans have a constitutional right to vote. On August 18, 1920, Tennesseewas the last of the nec… In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress repeatedly debated the rights of the millions of former black slaves. 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